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Accounting Standard (AS) 10 Notes

Accounting Standard (AS) 10: Property, Plant and Equipment (Revised)

Objective

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for property, plant and equipment so that users of the financial statements can discern information about investment made by an enterprise in its property, plant and equipment and the changes in such investment.

The principal issues in accounting for property, plant and equipment are the recognition of the assets, the determination of their carrying amounts and the depreciation charges and impairment losses to be recognised in relation to them.

Scope

This Standard should be applied in accounting for property, plant and equipment except when another Accounting Standard requires or permits a different accounting treatment.

This Standard does not apply to:

(a) Biological assets related to agricultural activity other than bearer plants. This Standard applies to bearer plants but it does not apply to the produce on bearer plants; and

(b) Wasting assets including mineral rights, expenditure on the exploration for and extraction of minerals, oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources.

However, this Standard applies to property, plant and equipment used to develop or maintain the assets described in (a) and (b) above.

Other Accounting Standards may require recognition of an item of property, plant and equipment based on an approach different from that in this Standard. For example, AS 19, Leases, requires an enterprise to evaluate its recognition of an item of leased property, plant and equipment on the basis of the transfer of risks and rewards.

However, in such cases other aspects of the accounting treatment for these assets, including depreciation, are prescribed by this Standard.

Investment property, as defined in AS 13, Accounting for Investments, should be accounted for only in accordance with the cost model prescribed in this standard.

Important Terminology

Agricultural Activity is the management by an enterprise of the biological transformation and harvest of biological assets for sale or for conversion into agricultural produce or into additional biological assets.

Agricultural Produce is the harvested product of biological assets of the enterprise.

Bearer plant is a plant that:

a) is used in the production or supply of agricultural produce;

b) is expected to bear produce for more than a period of twelve months; and

c) has a remote likelihood of being sold as agricultural produce, except for incidental scrap sales.

The following are not bearer plants:

a) plants cultivated to be harvested as agricultural produce (for example, trees grown for use as lumber);

b) plants cultivated to produce agricultural produce when there is more than a remote likelihood that the entity will also harvest and sell the plant as agricultural produce, other than as incidental scrap sales (for example, trees that are cultivated both for their fruit and their lumber); and

c) annual crops (for example, maize and wheat).

When bearer plants are no longer used to bear produce they might be cut down and sold as scrap, for example, for use as firewood. Such incidental scrap sales would not prevent the plant from satisfying the definition of a bearer plant.

Biological Asset is a living animal or plant.

Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised after deducting any accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

Cost is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value of the other consideration given to acquire an asset at the time of its acquisition or construction or, where applicable, the amount attributed to that asset when initially recognised in accordance with the specific requirements of other Accounting Standards.

Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value.

Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life.

Enterprise -specific value is the present value of the cash flows an enterprise expects to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life or expects to incur when settling a liability.

Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

Gross carrying amount of an asset is its cost or other amount substituted for the cost in the books of account, without making any deduction for accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

An impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

Property, plant and equipment are tangible items that:

a) are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes; and

b) are expected to be used during more than a period of twelve months.

Recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s net selling price and its value in use.

The residual value of an asset is the estimated amount that an enterprise would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life.

Useful life is:

a) the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an enterprise ; or

b) the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by an enterprise.

Recognition

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment should be recognised as an asset if, and only if:

(a) it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the enterprise; and

(b) the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

Items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment are recognised in accordance with this Standard when they meet the definition of property, plant and equipment. Otherwise, such items are classified as inventory.

This Standard does not prescribe the unit of measure for recognition, i.e., what constitutes an item of property, plant and equipment. Thus, judgment is required in applying the recognition criteria to specific circumstances of an enterprise.

An enterprise evaluates under this recognition principle all its costs on property, plant and equipment at the time they are incurred. These costs include costs incurred:

(a) initially to acquire or construct an item of property, plant and equipment; and

(b) subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it.

Initial Costs

The definition of ‘property, plant and equipment’ covers tangible items which are held for use or for administrative purposes. The term ‘administrative purposes’ has been used in wider sense to include all business purposes other than production or supply of goods or services or for rental for others. Thus, property, plant and equipment would include assets used for selling and distribution, finance and accounting, personnel and other functions of an enterprise.

Items of property, plant and equipment may also be acquired for safety or environmental reasons. The acquisition of such property, plant and equipment, although not directly increasing the future economic benefits of any particular existing item of property, plant and equipment, may be necessary for an enterprise to obtain the future economic benefits from its other assets. Such items of property, plant and equipment qualify for recognition as assets because they enable an enterprise to derive future economic benefits from related assets in excess of what could be derived had those items not been acquired.

For example, a chemical manufacturer may install new chemical handling processes to comply with environmental requirements for the production and storage of dangerous chemicals; related plant enhancements are recognised as an asset because without them the enterprise is unable to manufacture and sell chemicals. The resulting carrying amount of such an asset and related assets is reviewed for impairment in accordance with AS 28, Impairment of Assets.

Subsequent Costs

Under the recognition principle (as mentioned above), an enterprise does not recognise in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the costs of the day-today servicing of the item. Rather, these costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as incurred. Costs of day-to-day servicing are primarily the costs of labour and consumables, and may include the cost of small parts. The purpose of such expenditures is often described as for the ‘repairs and maintenance’ of the item of property, plant and equipment.

Parts of some items of property, plant and equipment may require replacement at regular intervals or it may require replacement several times. Items of property, plant and equipment may also be acquired to make a less frequently recurring replacement or to make a non-recurring replacement. Under the recognition principle (as discussed above), an enterprise recognises in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the cost of replacing part of such an item when that cost is incurred if the recognition criteria are met. The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognised in accordance with the ‘derecognition provisions’ of this Standard.

A condition of continuing to operate an item of property, plant and equipment may be performing regular major inspections for faults regardless of whether parts of the item are replaced. When each major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the item of property, plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. Any remaining carrying amount of the cost of the previous inspection is derecognised.

The derecognition of the carrying amount occurs regardless of whether the cost of the previous part / inspection was identified in the transaction in which the item was acquired or constructed. If it is not practicable for an enterprise to determine the carrying amount of the replaced part/ inspection, it may use the cost of the replacement or the estimated cost of a future similar inspection as an indication of what the cost of the replaced part/ existing inspection component was when the item was acquired or constructed.

Measurement at Recognition

An item of property, plant and equipment that qualifies for recognition as an asset should be measured at its cost.

Elements of Cost

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:

(a) its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes,, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.

(b) any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.

(c) the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling, removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, referred to as ‘decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities’, the obligation for which an enterprise incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.

Measurement of Cost

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment is the cash price equivalent at the recognition date. If payment is deferred beyond normal credit terms, the difference between the cash price equivalent and the total payment is recognised as interest over the period of credit unless such interest is capitalised in accordance with AS 16.

One or more items of property, plant and equipment may be acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset or assets, or a combination of monetary and non-monetary assets. The following discussion refers simply to an exchange of one non-monetary asset for another, but it also applies to all exchanges described in the preceding sentence. The cost of such an item of property, plant and equipment is measured at fair value unless (a) the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or (b) the fair value of neither the asset(s) received nor the asset(s) given up is reliably measurable.

The acquired item(s) is/are measured in this manner even if an enterprise cannot immediately derecognise the asset given up. If the acquired item(s) is/are not measured at fair value, its/their cost is measured at the carrying amount of the asset(s) given up.

An enterprise determines whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance by considering the extent to which its future cash flows are expected to change as a result of the transaction. An exchange transaction has commercial substance if:

(a) the configuration (risk, timing and amount) of the cash flows of the asset received differs from the configuration of the cash flows of the asset transferred; or

(b) the enterprise-specific value of the portion of the operations of the enterprise affected by the transaction changes as a result of the exchange;

(c) and the difference in (a) or (b) is significant relative to the fair value of the assets exchanged.

For the purpose of determining whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance, the enterprise-specific value of the portion of operations of the enterprise affected by the transaction should reflect post-tax cash flows. In certain cases, the result of these analyses may be clear without an enterprise having to perform detailed calculations.

The fair value of an asset is reliably measurable if (a) the variability in the range of reasonable fair value measurements is not significant for that asset or (b) the probabilities of the various estimates within the range can be reasonably assessed and used when measuring fair value. If an enterprise is able to measure reliably the fair value of either the asset received or the asset given up, then the fair value of the asset given up is used to measure the cost of the asset received unless the fair value of the asset received is more clearly evident.

Where several items of property, plant and equipment are purchased for a consolidated price, the consideration is apportioned to the various items on the basis of their respective fair values at the date of acquisition. In case the fair values of the items acquired cannot be measured reliably, these values are estimated on a fair basis as determined by competent valuers.

Measurement after Recognition

An enterprise should choose either the cost model or the revaluation model as its accounting policy and should apply that policy to an entire class of property, plant and equipment. It is discussed hereunder:

(a) Cost Model:

After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment should be carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

(b) Revaluation Model:

After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment whose fair value can be measured reliably should be carried at a revalued amount, being its fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and subsequent accumulated impairment losses. Revaluations should be made with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the balance sheet date.

The fair value of items of property, plant and equipment is usually determined from market-based evidence by appraisal that is normally undertaken by professionally qualified valuers.

If there is no market-based evidence of fair value because of the specialised nature of the item of property, plant and equipment and the item is rarely sold, except as part of a continuing business, an enterprise may need to estimate fair value using an income approach (for example, based on discounted cash flow projections) or a depreciated replacement cost approach which aims at making a realistic estimate of the current cost of acquiring or constructing an item that has the same service potential as the existing item.

The frequency of revaluations depends upon the changes in fair values of the items of property, plant and equipment being revalued. When the fair value of a revalued asset differs materially from its carrying amount, a further revaluation is required. Some items of property, plant and equipment experience significant and volatile changes in fair value, thus necessitating annual revaluation. Such frequent revaluations are unnecessary for items of property, plant and equipment with only insignificant changes in fair value. Instead, it may be necessary to revalue the item only every three or five years.

When an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued, the carrying amount of that asset is adjusted to the revalued amount. At the date of the revaluation, the asset is treated in one of the following ways:

a. the gross carrying amount is adjusted in a manner that is consistent with the revaluation of the carrying amount of the asset; or

b. the accumulated depreciation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset.

If an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued, the entire class of property, plant and equipment to which that asset belongs should be revalued.

The items within a class of property, plant and equipment are revalued simultaneously to avoid selective revaluation of assets and the reporting of amounts in the financial statements that are a mixture of costs and values as at different dates. However, a class of assets may be revalued on a rolling basis provided revaluation of the class of assets is completed within a short period and provided the revaluations are kept up to date.

An increase in the carrying amount of an asset arising on revaluation should be credited directly to owners’ interests under the heading of revaluation surplus. However, the increase should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

A decrease in the carrying amount of an asset arising on revaluation should be charged to the statement of profit and loss. However, the decrease should be debited directly to owners’ interests under the heading of revaluation surplus to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset.

The revaluation surplus included in owners’ interests in respect of an item of property, plant and equipment may be transferred to the revenue reserves when the asset is derecognised. This may involve transferring the whole of the surplus when the asset is retired or disposed of. However, some of the surplus may be transferred as the asset issued by an enterprise. In such a case, the amount of the surplus transferred would be the difference between depreciation based on the revalued carrying amount of the asset and depreciation based on its original cost. Transfers from revaluation surplus to the revenue reserves are not made through the statement of profit and loss.

Depreciation

Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item should be depreciated separately.

An enterprise allocates the amount initially recognised in respect of an item of property, plant and equipment to its significant parts and depreciates each such part separately. For example, it may be appropriate to depreciate separately the airframe and engines of an aircraft, whether owned or subject to a finance lease.

A significant part of an item of property, plant and equipment may have a useful life and a depreciation method that are the same as the useful life and the depreciation method of another significant part of that same item. Such parts may be grouped in determining the depreciation charge.

To the extent that an enterprise depreciates separately some parts of an item of property, plant and equipment, it also depreciates separately the remainder of the item. The remainder consists of the parts of the item that are individually not significant. If an enterprise has varying expectations for these parts, approximation techniques may be necessary to depreciate the remainder in a manner that faithfully represents the consumption pattern and/or useful life of its parts.

An enterprise may choose to depreciate separately the parts of an item that do not have a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item.

The depreciation charge for each period should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless it is included in the carrying amount of another asset.

The depreciation charge for a period is usually recognised in the statement of profit and loss. However, sometimes, the future economic benefits embodied in an asset are absorbed in producing other assets. In this case, the depreciation charge constitutes part of the cost of the other asset and is included in its carrying amount. For example, the depreciation of manufacturing plant and equipment is included in the costs of conversion of inventories (see AS 2). Similarly, the depreciation of property, plant and equipment used for development activities may be included in the cost of an intangible asset recognised in accordance with AS 26, Intangible Assets.

Depreciable Amount and Depreciation Period

The depreciable amount of an asset should be allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life.

The residual value and the useful life of an asset should be reviewed at least at each financial year-end and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change(s) should be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with AS 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

Depreciation is recognised even if the fair value of the asset exceeds its carrying amount, as long as the asset’s residual value does not exceed its carrying amount. Repair and maintenance of an asset do not negate the need to depreciate it.

The depreciable amount of an asset is determined after deducting its residual value.

The residual value of an asset may increase to an amount equal to or greater than its carrying amount. If it does, depreciation charge of the asset is zero unless and until its residual value subsequently decreases to an amount below its carrying amount.

Depreciation of an asset begins when it is available for use, i.e., when it is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Depreciation of an asset ceases at the earlier of the date that the asset is retired from active use and is held for disposal and the date that the asset is derecognised. Therefore, depreciation does not cease when the asset becomes idle or is retired from active use (but not held for disposal) unless the asset is fully depreciated. However, under usage methods of depreciation, the depreciation charge can be zero while there is no production.

The future economic benefits embodied in an asset are consumed by an enterprise principally through its use. However, other factors, such as technical or commercial obsolescence and wear and tear while an asset remains idle, often result in the diminution of the economic benefits that might have been obtained from the asset. Consequently, all the following factors are considered in determining the useful life of an asset:

a. expected usage of the asset. Usage is assessed by reference to the expected capacity or physical output of the asset.

b. expected physical wear and tear, which depends on operational factors such as the number of shifts for which the asset is to be used and the repair and maintenance programme, and the care and maintenance of the asset while idle.

c. technical or commercial obsolescence arising from changes or improvements in production, or from a change in the market demand for the product or service output of the asset. Expected future reductions in the selling price of an item that was produced using an asset could indicate the expectation of technical or commercial obsolescence of the asset, which, in turn, might reflect a reduction of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset.

d. legal or similar limits on the use of the asset, such as the expiry dates of related leases.

The useful life of an asset is defined in terms of its expected utility to the enterprise. The asset management policy of the enterprise may involve the disposal of assets after as pecified time or after consumption of a specified proportion of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. Therefore, the useful life of an asset may be shorter than its economic life. The estimation of the useful life of the asset is a matter of judgment based on the experience of the enterprise with similar assets.

Land and buildings are separable assets and are accounted for separately, even when they are acquired together. With some exceptions, such as quarries and sites used for landfill, land has an unlimited useful life and therefore is not depreciated. Buildings have a limited useful life and therefore are depreciable assets. An increase in the value of the land on which a building stands does not affect the determination of the depreciable amount of the building.

If the cost of land includes the costs of site dismantlement, removal and restoration, that portion of the land asset is depreciated over the period of benefits obtained by incurring those costs. In some cases, the land itself may have a limited useful life, in which case it is depreciated in a manner that reflects the benefits to be derived from it.

Depreciation Method

The depreciation method used should reflect the pattern in which the future economic benefits of the asset are expected to be consumed by the enterprise.

The depreciation method applied to an asset should be reviewed at least at each financial year-end and, if there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset, the method should be changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such a change should be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with AS 5.

A variety of depreciation methods can be used to allocate the depreciable amount of an asset on a systematic basis over its useful life. These methods include the straight-line method, the diminishing balance method and the units of production method. Straight-line depreciation results in a constant charge over the useful life if the residual value of the asset does not change. The diminishing balance method results in a decreasing charge over the useful life. The units of production method results in a charge based on the expected use or output. The enterprise selects the method that most closely reflects the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. That method is applied consistently from period to period unless there is a change in the expected pattern of consumption of those future economic benefits or that the method is changed in accordance with the statute to best reflect the way the asset is consumed.

A depreciation method that is based on revenue that is generated by an activity that includes the use of an asset is not appropriate. The revenue generated by an activity that includes the use of an asset generally reflects factors other than the consumption of the economic benefits of the asset. For example, revenue is affected by other inputs and processes, selling activities and changes in sales volumes and prices. The price component of revenue may be affected by inflation, which has no bearing upon the way in which an asset is consumed.

Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Other Liabilities

The cost of property, plant and equipment may undergo changes subsequent to its acquisition or construction on account of changes in liabilities, price adjustments, changes in duties, changes in initial estimates of amounts provided for dismantling, removing, restoration and similar factors and included in the cost of the asset. Such changes in cost should be accounted for as under:

If the related asset is measured using the cost model:

  • Changes in the liability should be added to, or deducted from, the cost of the related asset in the current period.
  • The amount deducted from the cost of the asset should not exceed its carrying amount. If a decrease in the liability exceeds the carrying amount of the asset, the excess should be recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
  • If the adjustment results in an addition to the cost of an asset, the enterprise should consider whether this is an indication that the new carrying amount of the asset may not be fully recoverable. If it is such an indication, the enterprise should test the asset for impairment by estimating its recoverable amount, and should account for any impairment loss, in accordance with AS 28.

If the related asset is measured using the revaluation model:

  • Changes in the liability alter the revaluation surplus or deficit previously recognised on that asset, so that:
    • a decrease in the liability should be credited directly to revaluation surplus in the owners’ interest, except that it should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation deficit on the asset that was previously recognised in the statement of profit and loss;
    • An increase in the liability should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except that it should be debited directly to revaluation surplus in the owners’ interest to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset.
  • In the event that a decrease in the liability exceeds the carrying amount that would have been recognised had the asset been carried under the cost model, the excess should be recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
  • A change in the liability is an indication that the asset may have to be revalued in order to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the balance sheet date. Any such revaluation should be taken into account in determining the amounts to be taken to the statement of profit and loss and the owners’ interest. If are valuation is necessary, all assets of that class should be revalued.

The adjusted depreciable amount of the asset is depreciated over its useful life. Therefore, once the related asset has reached the end of its useful life, all subsequent changes in the liability should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they occur. This applies under both the cost model and the revaluation model.

Impairment

To determine whether an item of property, plant and equipment is impaired, an enterprise applies AS 28, Impairment of Assets. AS 28 explains how an enterprise reviews the carrying amount of its assets, how it determines the recoverable amount of an asset, and when it recognises, or reverses the recognition of, an impairment loss.

Compensation for Impairment

Compensation from third parties for items of property, plant and equipment that were impaired, lost or given up should be included in the statement of profit and loss when the compensation becomes receivable.

Impairments or losses of items of property, plant and equipment, related claims for or payments of compensation from third parties and any subsequent purchase or construction of replacement assets are separate economic events and are accounted for separately as follows:

  • Impairments of items of property, plant and equipment are recognized in accordance with AS 28;
  • Derecognition of items of property, plant and equipment retired or disposed of is determined in accordance with this Standard;
  • Compensation from third parties for items of property, plant and equipment that were impaired, lost or given up is included in determining profit or loss when it becomes receivable; and
  • The cost of items of property, plant and equipment restored, purchased or constructed as replacements is determined in accordance with this Standard.

Retirements

Items of property, plant and equipment retired from active use and held for disposal should be stated at the lower of their carrying amount and net realizable value. Any write-down in this regard should be recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Derecognition

The carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment should be derecognised

  • on disposal; or
  • when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

• The gain or loss arising from the derecognition of an item of property, plant and equipment should be included in the statement of profit and loss when the item is derecognised (unless AS 19, Leases, requires otherwise on a sale and leaseback).Gains should not be classified as revenue, as defined in AS 9, Revenue Recognition.

However, an enterprise that in the course of its ordinary activities, routinely sells items of property, plant and equipment that it had held for rental to others should transfer such assets to inventories at their carrying amount when they cease to be rented and become held for sale. The proceeds from the sale of such assets should be recognised in revenue in accordance with AS 9, Revenue Recognition.

The disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment may occur in a variety of ways (e.g. by sale, by entering into a finance lease or by donation). In determining the date of disposal of an item, an enterprise applies the criteria in AS 19 for recognizing revenue from the sale of goods. AS 19, Leases, applies to disposal by a sale and lease back.

If, under the recognition principle, an enterprise recognises in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the cost of a replacement for part of the item, then it derecognises the carrying amount of the replaced part regardless of whether the replaced part had been depreciated separately. If it is not practicable for an enterprise to determine the carrying amount of the replaced part, it may use the cost of the replacement as an indication of what the cost of the replaced part was at the time it was acquired or constructed.

The gain or loss arising from the derecognition of an item of property, plant and equipment should be determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of the item.

The consideration receivable on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in accordance with the principles enunciated in AS 9.

Disclosure

The financial statements should disclose, for each class of property, plant and equipment:

(a) the measurement bases (i.e., cost model or revaluation model) used for determining the gross carrying amount;

(b) the depreciation methods used;

(c) the useful lives or the depreciation rates used. In case the useful lives or the depreciation rates used are different from those specified in the statute governing the enterprise, it should make a specific mention of that fact;

(d) the gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation(aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period; and

(e) a reconciliation of the carrying amount at the beginning and end of the period showing: additions; assets retired from active use and held for disposal; acquisitions through business combinations; increases or decreases resulting from revaluations and from impairment losses; recognised or reversed directly in revaluation surplus in accordance with AS 28;impairment losses recognised in the statement of profit and loss in accordance with AS 28;impairment losses reversed in the statement of profit and loss in accordance with AS 28;depreciation;the net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements of a non-integral foreign operation in accordance with AS 11, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates; and other changes.

The financial statements should also disclose: the existence and amounts of restrictions on title, and property, plant and equipment pledged as security for liabilities; the amount of expenditure recognised in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment in the course of its construction; the amount of contractual commitments for the acquisition of property, plant and equipment; if it is not disclosed separately on the face of the statement of profit and loss, the amount of compensation from third parties for items of property, plant and equipment that were impaired, lost or given up that is included in the statement of profit and loss; and the amount of assets retired from active use and held for disposal.

Selection of the depreciation method and estimation of the useful life of assets are matters of judgement. Therefore, disclosure of the methods adopted and the estimated useful lives or depreciation rates provides users of financial statements with information that allows them to review the policies selected by management and enables comparisons to be made with other enterprises. For similar reasons, it is necessary to disclose: depreciation, whether recognised in the statement of profit and loss or as a part of the cost of other assets, during a period; and accumulated depreciation at the end of the period.

In accordance with AS 5, an enterprise discloses the nature and effect of a change in an accounting estimate that has an effect in the current period or is expected to have an effect in subsequent periods. For property, plant and equipment, such disclosure may arise from changes in estimates with respect to: residual values; the estimated costs of dismantling, removing or restoring items of property, plant and equipment; useful lives; and depreciation methods.

If items of property, plant and equipment are stated at revalued amounts, the following should be disclosed: the effective date of the revaluation; whether an independent valuer was involved; the methods and significant assumptions applied in estimating fair values of the items; the extent to which fair values of the items were determined directly by reference to observable prices in an active market or recent market transactions on arm’s length terms or were estimated using other valuation techniques; and the revaluation surplus, indicating the change for the period and any restrictions on the distribution of the balance to shareholders.

An enterprise is encouraged to disclose the following: the carrying amount of temporarily idle property, plant and equipment; the gross carrying amount of any fully depreciated property, plant and equipment that is still in use; for each revalued class of property, plant and equipment, the carrying amount that would have been recognised had the assets been carried under the cost model; the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment retired from active use and not held for disposal.

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