Menu Close

Accounting Standard (AS) 28 Impairment of Assets

Download Accounting Standard (AS) 28, Impairment of Assets, issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)

Objective

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the procedures that an enterprise applies to ensure that its assets are carried at no more than their recoverable amount. An asset is carried at more than its recoverable amount if its carrying amount exceeds the amount to be recovered through use or sale of the asset. If this is the case, the asset is described as impaired and this Standard requires the enterprise to recognise an impairment loss. This Standard also specifies when an enterprise should reverse an impairment loss and it prescribes certain disclosures for impaired assets.

Scope

1. This Standard should be applied in accounting for the impairment of all assets, other than:

(a) inventories (see AS 2, Valuation of Inventories);

(b) assets arising from construction contracts (see AS 7, Construction Contracts);

(c) financial assets, including investments that are included in the scope of AS 13, Accounting for Investments; and

(d) deferred tax assets (see AS 22, Accounting for Taxes on Income).

2. This Standard does not apply to inventories, assets arising from construction contracts, deferred tax assets or investments because existing Accounting Standards applicable to these assets already contain specific requirements for recognising and measuring the impairment related to these assets.

3. This Standard applies to assets that are carried at cost. It also applies to assets that are carried at revalued amounts in accordance with other applicable Accounting Standards. However, identifying whether a revalued asset may be impaired depends on the basis used to determine the fair value of the asset:

(a) if the fair value of the asset is its market value, the only difference between the fair value of the asset and its net selling price is the direct incremental costs to dispose of the asset:

(i) if the disposal costs are negligible, the recoverable amount of the revalued asset is necessarily close to, or greater than, its revalued amount (fair value). In this case, after the revaluation requirements have been applied, it is unlikely that the revalued asset is impaired and recoverable amount need not be estimated; and

(ii) if the disposal costs are not negligible, net selling price of the revalued asset is necessarily less than its fair value. Therefore, the revalued asset will be impaired if its value in use is less than its revalued amount (fair value). In this case, after the revaluation requirements have been applied, an enterprise applies this Standard to determine whether the asset may be impaired; and

(b) if the asset’s fair value is determined on a basis other than its market value, its revalued amount (fair value) may be greater or lower than its recoverable amount. Hence, after the revaluation requirements have been applied, an enterprise applies this Standard to determine whether the asset may be impaired.

Definitions

4. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

4.1 Recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s net selling price and its value in use.

4.2 Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.

“Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life, or a reasonable estimate thereof. ”

4.3 Net selling price is the amount obtainable from the sale of an asset in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, less the costs of disposal.

4.4 Costs of disposal are incremental costs directly attributable to the disposal of an asset, excluding finance costs and income tax expense.

4.5 An impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

4.6 Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised in the balance sheet after deducting any accumulated depreciation (amortisation) and accumulated impairment losses thereon.

4.7 Depreciation (Amortisation) is a systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life.

4.8 Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost in the financial statements, less its residual value.

4.9 Useful life is either:

(a) the period of time over which an asset is expected to be used by the enterprise; or

(b) the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by the enterprise.

4.10 A cash generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets.

4.11 Corporate assets are assets other than goodwill that contribute to the future cash flows of both the cash generating unit under review and other cash generating units.

4.12 An active market is a market where all the following conditions exist :

(a) the items traded within the market are homogeneous;

(b) willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and

(c) prices are available to the public.

Identifying an Asset that may be Impaired

5. An asset is impaired when the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Paragraphs 6 to 13 specify when recoverable amount should be determined. These requirements use the term ‘an asset’ but apply equally to an individual asset or a cash-generating unit.

6. An enterprise should assess at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the enterprise should estimate the recoverable amount of the asset.

7. Paragraphs 8 to 10 describe some indications that an impairment loss may have occurred: if any of those indications is present, an enterprise is required to make a formal estimate of recoverable amount. If no indication of a potential impairment loss is present, this Standard does not require an enterprise to make a formal estimate of recoverable amount.

8. In assessing whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired, an enterprise should consider, as a minimum, the following indications:

External sources of information

(a) during the period, an asset’s market value has declined significantly more than would be expected as a result of the passage of time or normal use;

(b) significant changes with an adverse effect on the enterprise have taken place during the period, or will take place in the near future, in the technological, market, economic or legal environment in which the enterprise operates or in the market to which an asset is dedicated;

(c) market interest rates or other market rates of return on investments have increased during the period, and those increases are likely to affect the discount rate used in calculating an asset’s value in use and decrease the asset’s recoverable amount materially;

(d) the carrying amount of the net assets of the reporting enterprise is more than its market capitalisation;

Internal sources of information

(e) evidence is available of obsolescence or physical damage of an asset;

(f) significant changes with an adverse effect on the enterprise have taken place during the period, or are expected to take place in the near future, in the extent to which, or manner in which, an asset is used or is expected to be used. These changes include plans to discontinue or restructure the operation to which an asset belongs or to dispose of an asset before the previously expected date; and

(g) evidence is available from internal reporting that indicates that the economic performance of an asset is, or will be, worse than expected.

9. The list of paragraph 8 is not exhaustive. An enterprise may identify other indications that an asset may be impaired and these would also require the enterprise to determine the asset’s recoverable amount.

10. Evidence from internal reporting that indicates that an asset may be impaired includes the existence of:

(a) cash flows for acquiring the asset, or subsequent cash needs for operating or maintaining it, that are significantly higher than those originally budgeted;

(b) actual net cash flows or operating profit or loss flowing from the asset that are significantly worse than those budgeted;

(c) a significant decline in budgeted net cash flows or operating profit, or a significant increase in budgeted loss, flowing from the asset; or

(d) operating losses or net cash outflows for the asset, when current period figures are aggregated with budgeted figures for the future.

11. The concept of materiality applies in identifying whether the recoverable amount of an asset needs to be estimated. For example, if previous calculations show that an asset’s recoverable amount is significantly greater than its carrying amount, the enterprise need not re-estimate the asset’s recoverable amount if no events have occurred that would eliminate that difference. Similarly, previous analysis may show that an asset’s recoverable amount is not sensitive to one (or more) of the indications listed in paragraph 8.

12. If market interest rates or other market rates of return on investments have increased during the period, an enterprise is not required to make a formal estimate of an asset’s recoverable amount in the following cases:

(a) if the discount rate used in calculating the asset’s value in use is unlikely to be affected by the increase in these market rates. For example, increases in short-term interest rates may not have a material effect on the discount rate used for an asset that has a long remaining useful life; or

(b) if the discount rate used in calculating the asset’s value in use is likely to be affected by the increase in these market rates but previous sensitivity analysis of recoverable amount shows that:

(i) it is unlikely that there will be a material decrease in recoverable amount because future cash flows are also likely to increase. For example, in some cases, an enterprise may be able to demonstrate that it adjusts its revenues to compensate for any increase in market rates; or

(ii) the decrease in recoverable amount is unlikely to result in a material impairment loss.

13. If there is an indication that an asset may be impaired, this may indicate that the remaining useful life, the depreciation (amortisation) method or the residual value for the asset need to be reviewed and adjusted under the Accounting Standard applicable to the asset, such as Accounting Standard (AS) 6, Depreciation Accounting, even if no impairment loss is recognised for the asset.

Measurement of Recoverable Amount

14. This Standard defines recoverable amount as the higher of an asset’s net selling price and value in use. Paragraphs 15 to 55 set out the requirements for measuring recoverable amount. These requirements use the term ‘an asset’ but apply equally to an individual asset or a cash-generating unit.

15. It is not always necessary to determine both an asset’s net selling price and its value in use. For example, if either of these amounts exceeds the asset’s carrying amount, the asset is not impaired and it is not necessary to estimate the other amount.

16. It may be possible to determine net selling price, even if an asset is not traded in an active market. However, sometimes it will not be possible to determine net selling price because there is no basis for making a reliable estimate of the amount obtainable from the sale of the asset in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable and willing parties. In this case, the recoverable amount of the asset may be taken to be its value in use.

17. If there is no reason to believe that an asset’s value in use materially exceeds its net selling price, the asset’s recoverable amount may be taken to be its net selling price. This will often be the case for an asset that is held for disposal. This is because the value in use of an asset held for disposal will consist mainly of the net disposal proceeds, since the future cash flows from continuing use of the asset until its disposal are likely to be negligible.

18. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. If this is the case, recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs (see paragraphs 63 to 86), unless either:

(a) the asset’s net selling price is higher than its carrying amount; or

(b) the asset’s value in use can be estimated to be close to its net selling price and net selling price can be determined.

Net Selling Price

20. The best evidence of an asset’s net selling price is a price in a binding sale agreement in an arm’s length transaction, adjusted for incremental costs that would be directly attributable to the disposal of the asset.

21. If there is no binding sale agreement but an asset is traded in an active market, net selling price is the asset’s market price less the costs of disposal. The appropriate market price is usually the current bid price. When current bid prices are unavailable, the price of the most recent transaction may provide a basis from which to estimate net selling price, provided that there has not been a significant change in economic circumstances between the transaction date and the date at which the estimate is made.

22. If there is no binding sale agreement or active market for an asset, net selling price is based on the best information available to reflect the amount that an enterprise could obtain, at the balance sheet date, for the disposal of the asset in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, after deducting the costs of disposal. In determining this amount, an enterprise considers the outcome of recent transactions for similar assets within the same industry. Net selling price does not reflect a forced sale, unless management is compelled to sell immediately.

23. Costs of disposal, other than those that have already been recognised as liabilities, are deducted in determining net selling price. Examples of such costs are legal costs, costs of removing the asset, and direct incremental costs to bring an asset into condition for its sale. However, termination benefits and costs associated with reducing or reorganising a business following the disposal of an asset are not direct incremental costs to dispose of the asset.

24. Sometimes, the disposal of an asset would require the buyer to take over a liability and only a single net selling price is available for both the asset and the liability. Paragraph 76 explains how to deal with such cases.

Value in Use

25. Estimating the value in use of an asset involves the following steps:

(a) estimating the future cash inflows and outflows arising from continuing use of the asset and from its ultimate disposal; and

(b) applying the appropriate discount rate to these future cash flows.

Basis for Estimates of Future Cash Flows

26. In measuring value in use:

(a) cash flow projections should be based on reasonable and supportable assumptions that represent management’s best estimate of the set of economic conditions that will exist over the remaining useful life of the asset. Greater weight should be given to external evidence;

(b) cash flow projections should be based on the most recent financial budgets/forecasts that have been approved by management. Projections based on these budgets/forecasts should cover a maximum period of five years, unless a longer period can be justified; and

(c) cash flow projections beyond the period covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts should be estimated by extrapolating the projections based on the budgets/forecasts using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified. This growth rate should not exceed the long-term average growth rate for the products, industries, or country or countries in which the enterprise operates, or for the market in which the asset is used, unless a higher rate can be justified.

27. Detailed, explicit and reliable financial budgets/forecasts of future cash flows for periods longer than five years are generally not available. For this reason, management’s estimates of future cash flows are based on the most recent budgets/forecasts for a maximum of five years. Management may use cash flow projections based on financial budgets/forecasts over a period longer than five years if management is confident that these projections are reliable and it can demonstrate its ability, based on past experience, to forecast cash flows accurately over that longer period.

28. Cash flow projections until the end of an asset’s useful life are estimated by extrapolating the cash flow projections based on the financial budgets/forecasts using a growth rate for subsequent years. This rate is steady or declining, unless an increase in the rate matches objective information about patterns over a product or industry lifecycle. If appropriate, the growth rate is zero or negative.

29. Where conditions are very favourable, competitors are likely to enter the market and restrict growth. Therefore, enterprises will have difficulty in exceeding the average historical growth rate over the long term (say, twenty years) for the products, industries, or country or countries in which the enterprise operates, or for the market in which the asset is used.

30. In using information from financial budgets/forecasts, an enterprise considers whether the information reflects reasonable and supportable assumptions and represents management’s best estimate of the set of economic conditions that will exist over the remaining useful life of the asset.

Composition of Estimates of Future Cash Flows

31. Estimates of future cash flows should include:

(a) projections of cash inflows from the continuing use of the asset;

(b) projections of cash outflows that are necessarily incurred to generate the cash inflows from continuing use of the asset (including cash outflows to prepare the asset for use) and that can be directly attributed, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the asset; and

(c) net cash flows, if any, to be received (or paid) for the disposal of the asset at the end of its useful life.

32. Estimates of future cash flows and the discount rate reflect consistent assumptions about price increases due to general inflation. Therefore, if the discount rate includes the effect of price increases due to general inflation, future cash flows are estimated in nominal terms. If the discount rate excludes the effect of price increases due to general inflation, future cash flows are estimated in real terms but include future specific price increases or decreases.

33. Projections of cash outflows include future overheads that can be attributed directly, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the use of the asset.

34. When the carrying amount of an asset does not yet include all the cash outflows to be incurred before it is ready for use or sale, the estimate of future cash outflows includes an estimate of any further cash outflow that is expected to be incurred before the asset is ready for use or sale. For example, this is the case for a building under construction or for a development project that is not yet completed.

35. To avoid double counting, estimates of future cash flows do not include:

(a) cash inflows from assets that generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from the asset under review (for example, financial assets such as receivables); and

(b) cash outflows that relate to obligations that have already been recognised as liabilities (for example, payables, pensions or provisions).

36. Future cash flows should be estimated for the asset in its current condition. Estimates of future cash flows should not include estimated future cash inflows or outflows that are expected to arise from:

(a) a future restructuring to which an enterprise is not yet committed; or

(b) future capital expenditure that will improve or enhance the asset in excess of its originally assessed standard of performance.

37. Because future cash flows are estimated for the asset in its current condition, value in use does not reflect:

(a) future cash outflows or related cost savings (for example, reductions in staff costs) or benefits that are expected to arise from a future restructuring to which an enterprise is not yet committed; or

(b) future capital expenditure that will improve or enhance the asset in excess of its originally assessed standard of performance or the related future benefits from this future expenditure.

38. A restructuring is a programme that is planned and controlled by management and that materially changes either the scope of the business undertaken by an enterprise or the manner in which the business is conducted.

39. When an enterprise becomes committed to a restructuring, some assets are likely to be affected by this restructuring. Once the enterprise is committed to the restructuring, in determining value in use, estimates of future cash inflows and cash outflows reflect the cost savings and other benefits from the restructuring (based on the most recent financial budgets/forecasts that have been approved by management).

40. Until an enterprise incurs capital expenditure that improves or enhances an asset in excess of its originally assessed standard of performance, estimates of future cash flows do not include the estimated future cash inflows that are expected to arise from this expenditure.

41. Estimates of future cash flows include future capital expenditure necessary to maintain or sustain an asset at its originally assessed standard of performance.

42. Estimates of future cash flows should not include:

(a) cash inflows or outflows from financing activities; or

(b) income tax receipts or payments.

43. Estimated future cash flows reflect assumptions that are consistent with the way the discount rate is determined. Otherwise, the effect of some assumptions will be counted twice or ignored. Because the time value of money is considered by discounting the estimated future cash flows, these cash flows exclude cash inflows or outflows from financing activities. Similarly, since the discount rate is determined on a pre-tax basis, future cash flows are also estimated on a pre-tax basis.

44. The estimate of net cash flows to be received (or paid) for the disposal of an asset at the end of its useful life should be the amount that an enterprise expects to obtain from the disposal of the asset in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal.

45. The estimate of net cash flows to be received (or paid) for the disposal of an asset at the end of its useful life is determined in a similar way to an asset’s net selling price, except that, in estimating those net cash flows:

(a) an enterprise uses prices prevailing at the date of the estimate for similar assets that have reached the end of their useful life and that have operated under conditions similar to those in which the asset will be used; and

(b) those prices are adjusted for the effect of both future price increases due to general inflation and specific future price increases (decreases). However, if estimates of future cash flows from the asset’s continuing use and the discount rate exclude the effect of general inflation, this effect is also excluded from the estimate of net cash flows on disposal.

Foreign Currency Future Cash Flows

46. Future cash flows are estimated in the currency in which they will be generated and then discounted using a discount rate appropriate for that currency. An enterprise translates the present value obtained using the exchange rate at the balance sheet date (described in Accounting Standard (AS) 11, Accounting for the Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates, as the closing rate).

Discount Rate

47. The discount rate(s) should be a pre tax rate(s) that reflect(s) current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. The discount rate(s) should not reflect risks for which future cash flow estimates have been adjusted.

48. A rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset is the return that investors would require if they were to choose an investment that would generate cash flows of amounts, timing and risk profile equivalent to those that the enterprise expects to derive from the asset. This rate is estimated from the rate implicit in current market transactions for similar assets or from the weighted average cost of capital of a listed enterprise that has a single asset (or a portfolio of assets) similar in terms of service potential and risks to the asset under review.

49. When an asset-specific rate is not directly available from the market, an enterprise uses other bases to estimate the discount rate. The purpose is to estimate, as far as possible, a market assessment of:

(a) the time value of money for the periods until the end of the asset’s useful life; and

(b) the risks that the future cash flows will differ in amount or timing from estimates.

50. As a starting point, the enterprise may take into account the following rates:

(a) the enterprise’s weighted average cost of capital determined using techniques such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model;

(b) the enterprise’s incremental borrowing rate; and

(c) other market borrowing rates.

51. These rates are adjusted:

(a) to reflect the way that the market would assess the specific risks associated with the projected cash flows; and

(b) to exclude risks that are not relevant to the projected cash flows.

52. To avoid double counting, the discount rate does not reflect risks for which future cash flow estimates have been adjusted.

53. The discount rate is independent of the enterprise’s capital structure and the way the enterprise financed the purchase of the asset because the future cash flows expected to arise from an asset do not depend on the way in which the enterprise financed the purchase of the asset.

54. When the basis for the rate is post-tax, that basis is adjusted to reflect a pre-tax rate.

55. An enterprise normally uses a single discount rate for the estimate of an asset’s value in use. However, an enterprise uses separate discount rates for different future periods where value in use is sensitive to a difference in risks for different periods or to the term structure of interest rates.

Recognition and Measurement of an Impairment Loss

56. Paragraphs 57 to 62 set out the requirements for recognising and measuring impairment losses for an individual asset. Recognition and measurement of impairment losses for a cash-generating unit are dealt with in paragraphs 87 to 92.

57. If the recoverable amount of an asset is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset should be reduced to its recoverable amount. That reduction is an impairment loss.

58. An impairment loss should be recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss immediately, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount in accordance with another Accounting Standard (see Accounting Standard (AS) 10, Accounting for Fixed Assets), in which case any impairment loss of a revalued asset should be treated as a revaluation decrease under that Accounting Standard.

59. An impairment loss on a revalued asset is recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. However, an impairment loss on a revalued asset is recognised directly against any revaluation surplus for the asset to the extent that the impairment loss does not exceed the amount held in the revaluation surplus for that same asset.

60. When the amount estimated for an impairment loss is greater than the carrying amount of the asset to which it relates, an enterprise should recognise a liability if, and only if, that is required by another Accounting Standard.

61. After the recognition of an impairment loss, the depreciation (amortisation) charge for the asset should be adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset’s revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on a systematic basis over its remaining useful life.

62. If an impairment loss is recognised, any related deferred tax assets or liabilities are determined under Accounting Standard (AS) 22, Accounting for Taxes on Income.

Cash-Generating Units

63. Paragraphs 64 to 92 set out the requirements for identifying the cash- generating unit to which an asset belongs and determining the carrying amount of, and recognising impairment losses for, cash-generating units.

Identification of the Cash-Generating Unit to Which an Asset Belongs

64. If there is any indication that an asset may be impaired, the recoverable amount should be estimated for the individual asset.

If it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of the individual asset, an enterprise should determine the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs (the asset’s cash-generating unit).

65. The recoverable amount of an individual asset cannot be determined if:

(a) the asset’s value in use cannot be estimated to be close to its net selling price (for example, when the future cash flows from continuing use of the asset cannot be estimated to be negligible); and

(b) the asset does not generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, value in use and, therefore, recoverable amount, can be determined only for the asset’s cash-generating unit.

66. As defined in paragraph 4, an asset’s cash-generating unit is the smallest group of assets that includes the asset and that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. Identification of an asset’s cash-generating unit involves judgement. If recoverable amount cannot be determined for an individual asset, an enterprise identifies the lowest aggregation of assets that generate largely independent cash inflows from continuing use.

67. Cash inflows from continuing use are inflows of cash and cash equivalents received from parties outside the reporting enterprise. In identifying whether cash inflows from an asset (or group of assets) are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets (or groups of assets), an enterprise considers various factors including how management monitors the enterprise’s operations (such as by product lines, businesses, individual locations, districts or regional areas or in some other way) or how management makes decisions about continuing or disposing of the enterprise’s assets and operations.

68. If an active market exists for the output produced by an asset or a group of assets, this asset or group of assets should be identified as a separate cash-generating unit, even if some or all of the output is used internally. If this is the case, management’s best estimate of future market prices for the output should be used:

(a) in determining the value in use of this cash-generating unit, when estimating the future cash inflows that relate to the internal use of the output; and

(b) in determining the value in use of other cash-generating units of the reporting enterprise, when estimating the future cash outflows that relate to the internal use of the output.

69. Even if part or all of the output produced by an asset or a group of assets is used by other units of the reporting enterprise (for example, products at an intermediate stage of a production process), this asset or group of assets forms a separate cash-generating unit if the enterprise could sell this output in an active market. This is because this asset or group of assets could generate cash inflows from continuing use that would be largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. In using information based on financial budgets/forecasts that relates to such a cash-generating unit, an enterprise adjusts this information if internal transfer prices do not reflect management’s best estimate of future market prices for the cash-generating unit’s output.

70. Cash-generating units should be identified consistently from period to period for the same asset or types of assets, unless a change is justified.

71. If an enterprise determines that an asset belongs to a different cash- generating unit than in previous periods, or that the types of assets aggregated for the asset’s cash-generating unit have changed, paragraph 121 requires certain disclosures about the cash-generating unit, if an impairment loss is recognised or reversed for the cash-generating unit and is material to the financial statements of the reporting enterprise as a whole.

Recoverable Amount and Carrying Amount of a Cash- Generating Unit

72. The recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit is the higher of the cash-generating unit’s net selling price and value in use. For the purpose of determining the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit, any reference in paragraphs 15 to 55 to ‘an asset’ is read as a reference to ‘a cash-generating unit’.

73. The carrying amount of a cash-generating unit should be determined consistently with the way the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is determined.

74. The carrying amount of a cash-generating unit:

(a) includes the carrying amount of only those assets that can be attributed directly, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the cash-generating unit and that will generate the future cash inflows estimated in determining the cash-generating unit’s value in use; and

(b) does not include the carrying amount of any recognised liability, unless the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit cannot be determined without consideration of this liability.

This is because net selling price and value in use of a cash-generating unit are determined excluding cash flows that relate to assets that are not part of the cash-generating unit and liabilities that have already been recognised in the financial statements, as set out in paragraphs 23 and 35.

75. Where assets are grouped for recoverability assessments, it is important to include in the cash-generating unit all assets that generate the relevant stream of cash inflows from continuing use. Otherwise, the cash-generating unit may appear to be fully recoverable when in fact an impairment loss has occurred. In some cases, although certain assets contribute to the estimated future cash flows of a cash-generating unit, they cannot be allocated to the cash-generating unit on a reasonable and consistent basis. This might be the case for goodwill or corporate assets such as head office assets. Paragraphs 78 to 86 explain how to deal with these assets in testing a cash-generating unit for impairment.

76. It may be necessary to consider certain recognised liabilities in order to determine the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit. This may occur if the disposal of a cash-generating unit would require the buyer to take over a liability. In this case, the net selling price (or the estimated cash flow from ultimate disposal) of the cash-generating unit is the estimated selling price for the assets of the cash-generating unit and the liability together, less the costs of disposal. In order to perform a meaningful comparison between the carrying amount of the cash-generating unit and its recoverable amount, the carrying amount of the liability is deducted in determining both the cash-generating unit’s value in use and its carrying amount.

77. For practical reasons, the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit is sometimes determined after consideration of assets that are not part of the cash-generating unit (for example, receivables or other financial assets) or liabilities that have already been recognised in the financial statements (for example, payables, pensions and other provisions). In such cases, the carrying amount of the cash-generating unit is increased by the carrying amount of those assets and decreased by the carrying amount of those liabilities.

Goodwill

78. In testing a cash-generating unit for impairment, an enterprise should identify whether goodwill that relates to this cash-generating unit is recognised in the financial statements. If this is the case, an enterprise should:

(a) perform a ‘bottom-up’ test, that is, the enterprise should:

(i) identify whether the carrying amount of goodwill can be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to the cash- generating unit under review; and

(ii) then, compare the recoverable amount of the cash- generating unit under review to its carrying amount (including the carrying amount of allocated goodwill, if any) and recognise any impairment loss in accordance with paragraph 87.

The enterprise should perform the step at (ii) above even if none of the carrying amount of goodwill can be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to the cash-generating unit under review; and

(b) if, in performing the ‘bottom-up’ test, the enterprise could not allocate the carrying amount of goodwill on a reasonable and consistent basis to the cash-generating unit under review, the enterprise should also perform a ‘top-down’ test, that is, the enterprise should:

(i) identify the smallest cash-generating unit that includes the cash-generating unit under review and to which the carrying amount of goodwill can be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis (the ‘larger ’ cash- generating unit); and 

(ii) then, compare the recoverable amount of the larger cash-generating unit to its carrying amount (including the carrying amount of allocated goodwill) and recognise any impairment loss in accordance with paragraph 87.

79. Goodwill arising on acquisition represents a payment made by an acquirer in anticipation of future economic benefits. The future economic benefits may result from synergy between the identifiable assets acquired or from assets that individually do not qualify for recognition in the financial statements. Goodwill does not generate cash flows independently from other assets or groups of assets and, therefore, the recoverable amount of goodwill as an individual asset cannot be determined. As a consequence, if there is an indication that goodwill may be impaired, recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which goodwill belongs. This amount is then compared to the carrying amount of this cash-generating unit and any impairment loss is recognised in accordance with paragraph 87.

80. Whenever a cash-generating unit is tested for impairment, an enterprise considers any goodwill that is associated with the future cash flows to be generated by the cash-generating unit. If goodwill can be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, an enterprise applies the ‘bottom-up’ test only. If it is not possible to allocate goodwill on a reasonable and consistent basis, an enterprise applies both the ‘bottom-up’ test and ‘top-down’ test.

81. The ‘bottom-up’ test ensures that an enterprise recognises any impairment loss that exists for a cash-generating unit, including for goodwill that can be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis. Whenever it is impracticable to allocate goodwill on a reasonable and consistent basis in the ‘bottom-up’ test, the combination of the ‘bottom-up’ and the ‘top-down’ test ensures that an enterprise recognises:

(a) first, any impairment loss that exists for the cash-generating unit excluding any consideration of goodwill; and

(b) then, any impairment loss that exists for goodwill. Because an enterprise applies the ‘bottom-up’ test first to all assets that may be impaired, any impairment loss identified for the larger cash-generating unit in the ‘top-down’ test relates only to goodwill allocated to the larger unit.

82. If the ‘top-down’ test is applied, an enterprise formally determines the recoverable amount of the larger cash-generating unit, unless there is persuasive evidence that there is no risk that the larger cash-generating unit is impaired.

Corporate Assets

83. Corporate assets include group or divisional assets such as the building of a headquarters or a division of the enterprise, EDP equipment or a research centre. The structure of an enterprise determines whether an asset meets the definition of corporate assets (see paragraph 4) for a particular cash- generating unit. Key characteristics of corporate assets are that they do not generate cash inflows independently from other assets or groups of assets and their carrying amount cannot be fully attributed to the cash-generating unit under review.

84. Because corporate assets do not generate separate cash inflows, the recoverable amount of an individual corporate asset cannot be determined unless management has decided to dispose of the asset. As a consequence, if there is an indication that a corporate asset may be impaired, recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the corporate asset belongs, compared to the carrying amount of this cash-generating unit and any impairment loss is recognised in accordance with paragraph 87.

85. In testing a cash-generating unit for impairment, an enterprise should identify all the corporate assets that relate to the cash-generating unit under review. For each identified corporate asset, an enterprise should then apply paragraph 78, that is:

(a) if the carrying amount of the corporate asset can be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to the cash-generating unit under review, an enterprise should apply the ‘bottom-up’ test only; and

(b) if the carrying amount of the corporate asset cannot be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to the cash-generating unit under review, an enterprise should apply both the ‘bottom- up’ and ‘top-down’ tests.

Impairment Loss for a Cash-Generating Unit

87. An impairment loss should be recognised for a cash-generating unit if, and only if, its recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount. The impairment loss should be allocated to reduce the carrying amount of the assets of the unit in the following order:

(a) first, to goodwill allocated to the cash-generating unit (if any); and

(b) then, to the other assets of the unit on a pro-rata basis based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit.

These reductions in carrying amounts should be treated as impairment losses on individual assets and recognised in accordance with paragraph 58.

88. In allocating an impairment loss under paragraph 87, the carrying amount of an asset should not be reduced below the highest of:

(a) its net selling price (if determinable);

(b) its value in use (if determinable); and

(c) zero.

The amount of the impairment loss that would otherwise have been allocated to the asset should be allocated to the other assets of the unit on a pro-rata basis.

89. The goodwill allocated to a cash-generating unit is reduced before reducing the carrying amount of the other assets of the unit because of its nature.

90. If there is no practical way to estimate the recoverable amount of each individual asset of a cash-generating unit, this Standard requires the allocation of the impairment loss between the assets of that unit other than goodwill on a pro-rata basis, because all assets of a cash-generating unit work together.

91. If the recoverable amount of an individual asset cannot be determined (see paragraph 65):

(a) an impairment loss is recognised for the asset if its carrying amount is greater than the higher of its net selling price and the results of the allocation procedures described in paragraphs 87 and 88; and

(b) no impairment loss is recognised for the asset if the related cash- generating unit is not impaired. This applies even if the asset’s net selling price is less than its carrying amount.

92. After the requirements in paragraphs 87 and 88 have been applied, a liability should be recognised for any remaining amount of an impairment loss for a cash-generating unit if that is required by another Accounting Standard.

Reversal of an Impairment Loss

93. Paragraphs 94 to 100 set out the requirements for reversing an impairment loss recognised for an asset or a cash-generating unit in prior accounting periods. These requirements use the term ‘an asset’ but apply equally to an individual asset or a cash-generating unit. Additional requirements are set out for an individual asset in paragraphs 101 to 105, for a cash-generating unit in paragraphs 106 to 107 and for goodwill in paragraphs 108 to 111.

94. An enterprise should assess at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. If any such indication exists, the enterprise should estimate the recoverable amount of that asset.

95. In assessing whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased, an enterprise should consider, as a minimum, the following indications:

External sources of information

(a) the asset’s market value has increased significantly during the period;

(b) significant changes with a favourable effect on the enterprise have taken place during the period, or will take place in the near future, in the technological, market, economic or legal environment in which the enterprise operates or in the market to which the asset is dedicated;

(c) market interest rates or other market rates of return on investments have decreased during the period, and those decreases are likely to affect the discount rate used in calculating the asset’s value in use and increase the asset’s recoverable amount materially;

Internal sources of information

(d) significant changes with a favourable effect on the enterprise have taken place during the period, or are expected to take place in the near future, in the extent to which, or manner in which, the asset is used or is expected to be used. These changes include capital expenditure that has been incurred during the period to improve or enhance an asset in excess of its originally assessed standard of performance or a commitment to discontinue or restructure the operation to which the asset belongs; and

(e) evidence is available from internal reporting that indicates that the economic performance of the asset is, or will be, better than expected.

96. Indications of a potential decrease in an impairment loss in paragraph 95 mainly mirror the indications of a potential impairment loss in paragraph 8. The concept of materiality applies in identifying whether an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may need to be reversed and the recoverable amount of the asset determined.

97. If there is an indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset may no longer exist or may have decreased, this may indicate that the remaining useful life, the depreciation (amortisation) method or the residual value may need to be reviewed and adjusted in accordance with the Accounting Standard applicable to the asset, even if no impairment loss is reversed for the asset.

98. An impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods should be reversed if there has been a change in the estimates of cash inflows, cash outflows or discount rates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. If this is the case, the carrying amount of the asset should be increased to its recoverable amount. That increase is a reversal of an impairment loss.

99. A reversal of an impairment loss reflects an increase in the estimated service potential of an asset, either from use or sale, since the date when an enterprise last recognised an impairment loss for that asset. An enterprise is required to identify the change in estimates that causes the increase in estimated service potential. Examples of changes in estimates include:

(a) a change in the basis for recoverable amount (i.e., whether recoverable amount is based on net selling price or value in use);

(b) if recoverable amount was based on value in use: a change in the amount or timing of estimated future cash flows or in the discount rate; or

(c) if recoverable amount was based on net selling price: a change in estimate of the components of net selling price.

100. An asset’s value in use may become greater than the asset’s carrying amount simply because the present value of future cash inflows increases as they become closer. However, the service potential of the asset has not increased. Therefore, an impairment loss is not reversed just because of the passage of time (sometimes called the ‘unwinding’ of the discount), even if the recoverable amount of the asset becomes higher than its carrying amount.

Reversal of an Impairment Loss for an Individual Asset

101. The increased carrying amount of an asset due to a reversal of an impairment loss should not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior accounting periods.

102. Any increase in the carrying amount of an asset above the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior accounting periods is a revaluation. In accounting for such a revaluation, an enterprise applies the Accounting Standard applicable to the asset.

103. A reversal of an impairment loss for an asset should be recognised as income immediately in the statement of profit and loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount in accordance with another Accounting Standard (see Accounting Standard (AS) 10, Accounting for Fixed Assets) in which case any reversal of an impairment loss on a revalued asset should be treated as a revaluation increase under that Accounting Standard.

104. A reversal of an impairment loss on a revalued asset is credited directly to equity under the heading revaluation surplus. However, to the extent that an impairment loss on the same revalued asset was previously recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss, a reversal of that impairment loss is recognised as income in the statement of profit and loss.

105. After a reversal of an impairment loss is recognised, the depreciation (amortisation) charge for the asset should be adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset’s revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on a systematic basis over its remaining useful life.

Reversal of an Impairment Loss for a Cash-Generating Unit

106. A reversal of an impairment loss for a cash-generating unit should be allocated to increase the carrying amount of the assets of the unit in the following order:

(a) first, assets other than goodwill on a pro-rata basis based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit; and

(b) then, to goodwill allocated to the cash-generating unit (if any), if the requirements in paragraph 108 are met.

These increases in carrying amounts should be treated as reversals of impairment losses for individual assets and recognised in accordance with paragraph 103.

107. In allocating a reversal of an impairment loss for a cash-generating unit under paragraph 106, the carrying amount of an asset should not be increased above the lower of:

(a) its recoverable amount (if determinable); and

(b) the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior accounting periods.

The amount of the reversal of the impairment loss that would otherwise have been allocated to the asset should be allocated to the other assets of the unit on a pro-rata basis.

Reversal of an Impairment Loss for Goodwill

108. As an exception to the requirement in paragraph 98, an impairment loss recognised for goodwill should not be reversed in a subsequent period unless:

(a) the impairment loss was caused by a specific external event of an exceptional nature that is not expected to recur; and

(b) subsequent external events have occurred that reverse the effect of that event.

109. Accounting Standard (AS) 26, Intangible Assets, prohibits the recognition of internally generated goodwill. Any subsequent increase in the recoverable amount of goodwill is likely to be an increase in internally generated goodwill, unless the increase relates clearly to the reversal of the effect of a specific external event of an exceptional nature.

110. This Standard does not permit an impairment loss to be reversed for goodwill because of a change in estimates (for example, a change in the discount rate or in the amount and timing of future cash flows of the cash- generating unit to which goodwill relates).

111. A specific external event is an event that is outside of the control of the enterprise. Examples of external events of an exceptional nature include new regulations that significantly curtail the operating activities, or decrease the profitability, of the business to which the goodwill relates.

Impairment in case of Discontinuing Operations

112. The approval and announcement of a plan for discontinuance is an indication that the assets attributable to the discontinuing operation may be impaired or that an impairment loss previously recognised for those assets should be increased or reversed. Therefore, in accordance with this Standard an enterprise estimates the recoverable amount of each asset of the discontinuing operation and recognises an impairment loss or reversal of a prior impairment loss, if any.

113. In applying this Standard to a discontinuing operation, an enterprise determines whether the recoverable amount of an asset of a discontinuing operation is assessed for the individual asset or for the asset’s cash-generating unit. For example:

(a) if the enterprise sells the discontinuing operation substantially in its entirety, none of the assets of the discontinuing operation generate cash inflows independently from other assets within the discontinuing operation. Therefore, recoverable amount is determined for the discontinuing operation as a whole and an impairment loss, if any, is allocated among the assets of the discontinuing operation in accordance with this Standard;

(b) if the enterprise disposes of the discontinuing operation in other ways such as piecemeal sales, the recoverable amount is determined for individual assets, unless the assets are sold in groups; and

(c) if the enterprise abandons the discontinuing operation, the recoverable amount is determined for individual assets as set out in this Standard.

114. After announcement of a plan, negotiations with potential purchasers of the discontinuing operation or actual binding sale agreements may indicate that the assets of the discontinuing operation may be further impaired or that impairment losses recognised for these assets in prior periods may have decreased. As a consequence, when such events occur, an enterprise re- estimates the recoverable amount of the assets of the discontinuing operation and recognises resulting impairment losses or reversals of impairment losses in accordance with this Standard.

115. A price in a binding sale agreement is the best evidence of an asset’s (cash-generating unit’s) net selling price or of the estimated cash inflow from ultimate disposal in determining the asset’s (cash-generating unit’s) value in use.

116. The carrying amount (recoverable amount) of a discontinuing operation includes the carrying amount (recoverable amount) of any goodwill that can be allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to that discontinuing operation.

Disclosure

117. For each class of assets, the financial statements should disclose:

(a) the amount of impairment losses recognised in the statement of profit and loss during the period and the line item(s) of the statement of profit and loss in which those impairment losses are included;

(b) the amount of reversals of impairment losses recognised in the statement of profit and loss during the period and the line item(s) of the statement of profit and loss in which those impairment losses are reversed;

(c) the amount of impairment losses recognised directly against revaluation surplus during the period; and

(d) the amount of reversals of impairment losses recognised directly in revaluation surplus during the period.

118. A class of assets is a grouping of assets of similar nature and use in an enterprise’s operations.

119. The information required in paragraph 117 may be presented with other information disclosed for the class of assets. For example, this information may be included in a reconciliation of the carrying amount of fixed assets, at the beginning and end of the period, as required under AS 10, Accounting for Fixed Assets.

120. An enterprise that applies AS 17, Segment Reporting, should disclose the following for each reportable segment based on an enterprise’s primary format (as defined in AS 17):

(a) the amount of impairment losses recognised in the statement of profit and loss and directly against revaluation surplus during the period; and

(b) the amount of reversals of impairment losses recognised in the statement of profit and loss and directly in revaluation surplus during the period.

121. If an impairment loss for an individual asset or a cash-generating unit is recognised or reversed during the period and is material to the financial statements of the reporting enterprise as a whole, an enterprise should disclose:

(a) the events and circumstances that led to the recognition or reversal of the impairment loss;

(b) the amount of the impairment loss recognised or reversed;

(c) for an individual asset:

(i) the nature of the asset; and

(ii) the reportable segment to which the asset belongs, based on the enterprise’s primary format (as defined in AS 17, Segment Reporting);

(d) for a cash-generating unit:

(i) a description of the cash-generating unit (such as whether it is a product line, a plant, a business operation, a geographical area, a reportable segment as defined in AS 17 or other); 

(ii) the amount of the impairment loss recognised or reversed by class of assets and by reportable segment based on the enterprise’s primary format (as defined in AS 17); and

(iii) if the aggregation of assets for identifying the cash-generating unit has changed since the previous estimate of the cash- generating unit’s recoverable amount (if any), the enterprise should describe the current and former way of aggregating assets and the reasons for changing the way the cash- generating unit is identified;

(e) whether the recoverable amount of the asset (cash-generating unit) is its net selling price or its value in use;

(f) if recoverable amount is net selling price, the basis used to determine net selling price (such as whether selling price was determined by reference to an active market or in some other way); and

(g) if recoverable amount is value in use, the discount rate(s) used in the current estimate and previous estimate (if any) of value in use. 

122. If impairment losses recognised (reversed) during the period are material in aggregate to the financial statements of the reporting enterprise as a whole, an enterprise should disclose a brief description of the following:

(a) the main classes of assets affected by impairment losses (reversals of impairment losses) for which no information is disclosed under paragraph 121; and

(b) the main events and circumstances that led to the recognition (reversal) of these impairment losses for which no information is disclosed under paragraph 121.

123. An enterprise is encouraged to disclose key assumptions used to determine the recoverable amount of assets (cash-generating units) during the period.

Transitional Provisions

124. On the date of this Standard becoming mandatory, an enterprise should assess whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired (see paragraphs 5-13). If any such indication exists, the enterprise should determine impairment loss, if any, in accordance with this Standard. The impairment loss, so determined, should be adjusted against opening balance of revenue reserves being the accumulated impairment loss relating to periods prior to this Standard becoming mandatory unless the impairment loss is on a revalued asset. An impairment loss on a revalued asset should be recognised directly against any revaluation surplus for the asset to the extent that the impairment loss does not exceed the amount held in the revaluation surplus for that same asset. If the impairment loss exceeds the amount held in the revaluation surplus for that same asset, the excess should be adjusted against opening balance of revenue reserves.

125. Any impairment loss arising after the date of this Standard becoming mandatory should be recognised in accordance with this Standard (i.e., in the statement of profit and loss unless an asset is carried at revalued amount. An impairment loss on a revalued asset should be treated as a revaluation decrease).

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

CommentLuv badge