Auditing and Assurance Chapter 8: Analytical Procedures
CA Inter Auditing and Assurance Chapter 8, Analytical Procedures, Important Solved Questions for May 2021 & November 2021 Exams.
CA Amar wants to verify the payments made by XYZ Ltd. on account of building rent during the FY 2020-21. The rent amounts to Rs.50,000/- per month for the year. The monthly rent payments are consistent with the rent agreement. However, the other companies in the similar industry are paying rent of Rs. 10,000/- per month for a similar location. How will applying the analytical procedures impact the verification process of such rental payments by XYZ Ltd.?
If CA Amar checks in detail the monthly rent payments, he may find that such payments are consistent with the rent agreement i.e. XYZ Ltd. paid Rs. 50,000/- per month as rent and the same is getting reflected in the rent agreement. Here, CA Amar may not be able to find out the inconsistency in the rent payment with respect to rent payment prevalent in the similar industry for rent of the similar location.
If CA Amar applies analytical procedure i.e. compares the rent payment by XYZ Ltd. with the similar payments made by companies in similar industry and similar area, he will notice an inconsistency in such rent payments as the other companies are paying a very less monthly rent in similar industry for similar area.
However, if CA Amar does not make such comparison and only checks the monthly payments and rent agreement of XYZ Ltd., he would not have found such inconsistency and as such the misstatement may remain undetected.
Analytical procedure involves analysis of relationship among financial and non financial data. Explain with the help of an example as to how, the statutory auditor of ABC Ltd. will analyse such relationship with respect to the total wages paid by ABC Ltd. during the FY 2020-21.
As per SA 520, Analytical Procedures means evaluations of ﬁnancial information through analysis of plausible relationships among both ﬁnancial and non-ﬁnancial data. The following example explains the analysis of relationship between financial and non financial data while applying analytical procedures.
The statutory auditor of ABC Ltd. has to verify the total wages paid by the company having factories in various states. He can verify the same by analyzing the relationship between wages per worker and total number of workers across all the factories.
i.e. Total wages = Wages per worker x Total number of workers.
Here wages per worker is financial data i.e. in Rs. and total number of workers is a number which is a non financial data. Thus, the statutory auditor of ABC Ltd. is evaluating financial information i.e. total wages paid (in Rs.) by analyzing the relationship between wages per worker (in Rs.) which is financial data and number of workers which is a non financial data.
The statutory auditor of MNO Ltd., CA Kishore identifies certain inconsistencies while applying analytical procedures to the financial and non financial data of MNO Ltd. What should CA Kishore do in this case with reference to SA 520 on “Analytical Procedures”?
As per SA 520- “Analytical Procedures” If while applying analytical procedures in accordance with SA 520, the statutory auditor identifies ﬂuctuations or relationships that are inconsistent with other relevant information or that diﬀer from expected values by a signiﬁcant amount, the auditor shall investigate such diﬀerences by:
(i) Inquiring of management and obtaining appropriate audit evidence relevant to management’s responses: Audit evidence relevant to management’s responses may be obtained by evaluating those responses taking into account the auditor’s understanding of the entity and its environment, and with other audit evidence obtained during the course of the audit.
(ii) Performing other audit procedures as necessary in the circumstances: The need to perform other audit procedures may arise when, for example, management is unable to provide an explanation, or the explanation, together with the audit evidence obtained relevant to management’s response, is not considered adequate.
In the present case, CA Kishore identifies certain inconsistencies while applying analytical procedures to the financial and non financial data of MNO Ltd. CA Kishore should inquire the management of MNO Ltd. and obtain sufficient and appropriate audit evidence relevant to management response. Further, CA Kishore should also perform other audit procedures if required in the circumstances of the case to obtain further sufficient and appropriate audit evidence.
Explain how a statutory auditor of a company can apply analytical procedures at the planning phase of audit.
Analytical Procedures are required in the planning phase and it is often done during the testing phase. In addition these are also required during the completion phase.
Analytical Procedures in Planning the Audit
In the planning stage, analytical procedures assist the auditor in understanding the client’s business and in identifying areas of potential risk by indicating aspects of and developments in the entity’s business of which he was previously unaware. This information will assist the auditor in determining the nature, timing and extent of his other audit procedures. Analytical procedures in planning the audit use both ﬁnancial data and non-ﬁnancial information, such as number of employees, square feet of selling space, volume of goods produced and similar information.
For example, analytical procedures may help the auditor during the planning stage to determine the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures that will be used to obtain audit evidence for specific account balances or classes of transactions.
While applying the Substantive Analytical Procedures what techniques can be used by the statutory auditor of a company to obtain sufficient and appropriate audit evidence?
While applying the Substantive Analytical Procedures the statutory auditor of a company may use the following techniques to obtain sufficient and appropriate audit evidence:
Trend analysis – Trend analysis is a commonly used technique. It is the comparison of current data with the prior period balance or with a trend in two or more prior period balances. We evaluate whether the current balance of an account moves in line with the trend established with previous balances for that account, or based on an understanding of factors that may cause the account to change.
Ratio analysis – Ratio analysis is useful for analysing asset and liability accounts as well as revenue and expense accounts. An individual balance sheet account is diﬃcult to predict on its own, but its relationship to another account is often more predictable (e.g., the trade receivables balance related to sales). Ratios can also be compared over time or to the ratios of separate entities within the group, or with the ratios of other companies in the same industry.
Reasonableness tests – Unlike trend analysis, this analytical procedure does not rely on events of prior periods, but upon non-ﬁnancial data for the audit period under consideration (e.g., occupancy rates to estimate rental income or interest rates to estimate interest income or expense). These tests are generally more applicable to income statement accounts and certain accrual or prepayment accounts. In other words these tests are made by reviewing the relationship of certain account balances to other balances for reasonableness of amounts.
Structural modelling – A modelling tool constructs a statistical model from ﬁnancial and/or non-ﬁnancial data of prior accounting periods to predict current account balances (e.g., linear regression).
The statutory auditor may use any of the above mentioned techniques while applying substantive analytical procedures depensing upon the availability of data and requirements of the case.