Auditing and Assurance Chapter 12: Audit of Banks
CA Inter Auditing and Assurance Chapter 12, Audit of Banks, Important Solved Questions for May 2021 & November 2021 Exams.
Explain the audit approach you would follow to check the Operating Expenses of a Bank.
Auditing the Operating Expenses of a Bank:-
(a) Internal Controls:- The auditor should study and evaluate the system of internal control relating to expenses, including authorization procedures in order to determine the nature, timing and extent of his other audit procedures.
(b) Divergent Trends:- The auditor should examine whether there are any divergent trends in respect of major items of expenses.
(c) Substantive analytical Procedures:- The auditor should perform substantive analytical procedures in respect of these expenses. eg. assess the reasonableness of expenses by working out their ratio to total operating expenses and comparing it with the corresponding ﬁgures for previous years.
(d) Vouching & Verification:- The auditor should also verify expenses with reference to supporting documents and check the calculations wherever required.
What are the general requirements of an effective Risk Management System in Banks ?
(a) Oversight and involvement in the control process by those charged with governance: Those charged with governance (Board of Directors/Managing Director) should approve written risk management policies. The policies should be consistent with the bank’s business objectives and strategies, capital strength, management expertise, regulatory requirements and the types and amounts of risk it regards as acceptable.
(b) Identiﬁcation, measurement and monitoring of risks: Risks that could signiﬁcantly impact the achievement of bank’s goals should be identiﬁed, measured and monitored against pre-approved limits and criteria.
(c) Control activities: A bank should have appropriate controls to mitigate its risks including eﬀective segregation of duties (particularly between front and back oﬃces), accurate measurement and reporting of positions, veriﬁcation and approval of transactions, reconciliation of positions and results, setting up limits, reporting and approval of exceptions, physical security and contingency planning.
(d) Monitoring activities: Risk management models, methodologies and assumptions used to measure and mitigate risk should be regularly assessed and updated. This function may be conducted by the independent risk management unit.
(e) Reliable information systems: Banks require reliable information systems that provide adequate ﬁnancial, operational and compliance information on a timely and consistent basis. Those charged with governance and management require risk management information that is easily understood and that enables them to assess the changing nature of the bank’s risk proﬁle.
The auditor should examine the eﬃcacy of various internal controls over advances to determine the nature, timing and extent of his substantive procedures. Explain this statement.
The auditor should examine the eﬃcacy of various internal controls over advances to determine the nature, timing and extent of his substantive procedures. In general, the internal controls over advances should include, inter alia, the following:
- The bank should make an advance only after satisfying itself as to the credit worthiness of the borrower and after obtaining sanction from the appropriate authorities of the bank.
- All the necessary documents (e.g., agreements, demand promissory notes, letters of hypothecation, etc.) should be executed by the parties before advances are made.
- The compliance with the terms of sanction and end use of funds should be ensured.
- Suﬃcient margin as speciﬁed in the sanction letter should be kept against securities taken so as to cover for any decline in the value thereof. The availability of suﬃcient margin needs to be ensured at regular intervals.
- If the securities taken are in the nature of shares, debentures, etc., the ownership of the same should be transferred in the name of the bank and the eﬀective control of such securities be retained as a part of documentation.
- All securities requiring registration should be registered in the name of the bank or otherwise accompanied by documents suﬃcient to give title to the bank.
- In the case of goods in the possession of the bank, contents of the packages should be test checked at the time of receipt. The godowns should be frequently inspected by responsible oﬃcers of the branch concerned, in addition to the inspectors of the bank.
- Drawing Power Register should be updated every month to record the value of securities hypothecated. These entries should be checked by an oﬃcer.
- The accounts should be kept within both the drawing power and the sanctioned limit.
- All the accounts which exceed the sanctioned limit or drawing power or are otherwise irregular should be brought to the notice of the controlling authority regularly.
- The operation of each advance account should be reviewed at least once a year and at more frequent intervals in the case of large advances.
“The engagement team should hold discussions to gain better understanding of the bank and its environment, including internal control, and also to assess the potential for material misstatements of the financial statements. All these discussions should be appropriately documented for future reference”. Explain
Engagement Team Discussions: The engagement team should hold discussions to gain better understanding of the bank and its environment, including internal control, and also to assess the potential for material misstatements of the financial statements. All these discussions should be appropriately documented for future reference. The discussion between the members of the engagement team and the audit engagement partner should be done on the susceptibility of the bank’s branch financial statements to material misstatements. These discussions are ordinarily done at the planning stage of an audit.
The engagement team discussion ordinarily includes a discussion of the following matters:
(a) Errors that may be more likely to occur;
(b) Errors which have been identified in prior years;
(c) Method by which fraud might be perpetrated by bank personnel or others within particular account balances and/or disclosures;
(d) Audit responses to Engagement Risk, Pervasive Risks, and Specific Risks;
(e) Need to maintain professional skepticism throughout the audit engagement;
(f) Need to alert for information or other conditions that indicates that a material misstatement may have occurred (e.g., the bank’s application of accounting policies in the given facts and circumstances).
Write a short note on reversal of income under bank audit.
If any advance, including bills purchased and discounted, becomes NPA as at the close of any year, the entire interest accrued and credited to income account in the past periods, should be reversed or provided for if the same is not realised. This will apply to Government guaranteed accounts also.
In respect of NPAs, fees, commission and similar income that have accrued should cease to accrue in the current period and should be reversed or provided for with respect to past periods, if uncollected.
Further, in case of banks which have wrongly recognised income in the past should reverse the interest if it was recognised as income during the current year or make a provision for an equivalent amount if it was recognized as income in the previous year(s).
Furthermore, the auditor should enquire if there are any large debits in the Interest Income account that have not been explained. It should be enquired whether there are any communications from borrowers pointing out differences in interest charge and whether appropriate action has been taken in this regard.