Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment, Important Questions with Solutions for CA Final Financial Reporting May & Nov 2021 Exams

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Question 1 –

A Ltd. purchased some Property, Plant and Equipment on 1st April, 20X1, and estimated their useful lives for the purpose of financial statements prepared on the basis of Ind AS: Following were the original cost, and useful life of the various components  of  property, plant, and equipment assessed on 1st April, 20X1:

Property, Plant and Equipment Original Cost Estimated useful life
Buildings Rs. 15,000,000 15 years
Plant and machinery Rs. 10,000,000 10 years
Furniture and fixtures Rs. 3,500,000 7 years

A Ltd. uses the straight-line method of depreciation. On 1st  April,  20X4,  the  entity  reviewed the following useful lives of the property, plant, and equipment  through  an external valuation expert:

Buildings 10 years
Plant and machinery 7 years
Furniture and fixtures 5 years

There were no salvage values for the three components of the property, plant, and equipment either initially or at the time the useful lives were revised.

Compute the impact of revaluation of useful life on the Statement  of  Profit and  Loss  for the year ending 31st March, 20X4.

Solution –

The annual depreciation charges prior to the change in useful life were

Buildings Rs. 1,50,00,000/15 = Rs. 10,00,000
Plant and machinery Rs. 1,00,00,000/10 = Rs. 10,00,000
Furniture and fixtures Rs. 35,00,000/7 =      Rs. 5,00,000
Total = Rs. 25,00,000 (A)

The revised annual depreciation for the year ending 31st March, 20X4, would be

Buildings [Rs.1,50,00,000 – (Rs. 10,00,000 × 3)] / 10 Rs. 12,00,000
Plant and machinery [Rs. 1,00,00,000 – (Rs. 10,00,000 × 3)] / 7 Rs. 10,00,000
Furniture and fixtures [Rs. 35,00,000 – (Rs. 5,00,000 × 3)] / 5 Rs. 4,00,000
Total Rs. 26,00,000 (B)

The impact on Statement of Profit and Loss for the year ending 31st March, 20X4

= Rs. 26,00,000 – Rs. 25,00,000 = Rs. 1,00,000

This is a change in accounting estimate which is adjusted prospectively in the period in  which the estimate is amended and, if relevant, to future periods if they are also affected. Accordingly, from 20X4-20X5 onward, excess of Rs. 1,00,000 will be charged in the  Statement of Profit and Loss every year till the time there is any further revision.

Question 2 –

On 1st April, 20X1, an item of property is offered for sale at Rs. 10 million, with payment terms being three equal installments of Rs. 33,33,333 over a two-year period (payments are made on 1st April, 20X1, 31st March, 20X2 and 31st March, 20X3). Implicit interest rate of 5.36 percent p.a.

Show how the property will be recorded in accordance of Ind AS 16.

Solution –

Ind AS 16 requires that the cost of an item of PPE is the cash price equivalent at the recognition date. Hence, the purchaser that takes up the deferred payment terms will recognise the acquisition of the asset as follows:


On 1st April, 20X1

Property, Plant  and  Equipment (W.N. 1)  Dr.

To Bank A/c

To Accounts Payable (W.N. 2)

(Initial recognition of property)









On 31st March, 20X2

Interest  Expense (W.N. 2)                    Dr.

Accounts  payable (W.N. 2)                    Dr.

To Bank A/c

(Recognition of interest expense and payment  of  second installment)








On 31st March, 20X3

Interest Expense(W.N. 2)                     Dr.

Accounts  payable (W.N. 2)                    Dr.

To Bank A/c

(Recognition of interest expense and payment of final installment)








Working Notes:

1. Calculation of cash price equivalent at initial recognition

Year Payment Discounting factor Present value
1.4.20X1 33,33,333 1.000 33,33,333
31.3.20X2 33,33,333 0.949 31,63,333
31.3.20X3 33,33,334 0.901 30,03,333
Initial date cash price equivalent 1,00,00,000 95,00,000

2. Calculation of interest expenses

Year Opening balance
Interest @ 5.36%
(b) = (a) x 5.36%
Total payment at year beginning
Principal amount in the instalment
(d) = (c) – (b)
Closing balance
(e) = (a) – (d)
1.4.20X1 95,00,000 33,33,333 33,33,333 61,66,667
31.3.20X2 61,66,667 3,30,533 33,33,333 30,02,800 31,63,867
31.3.20X3 31,63,867 1,69,467* 33,33,334 31,63,867 Nil

*Difference of Rs. 116 [(31,63,867 x 5.36%) – (33,33,334 – 31,63,867)] is due to approximation.

Question 3 –

Stars Ltd. is a multinational entity that owns three properties. All the three  properties were purchased on  1st  April 2016. The details of purchase price and the market values of the properties are given as follows:

Particulars Property 1 Property 2 Property 3
Factory Factory Let-out Building
Purchase Price 30,000 20,000 24,000
Market Value (31-03-2017) 32,000 22,000 27,000
Life 10 years 10 years 10 years
Subsequent Measurement Cost Model Revaluation Model Revaluation Model

Property 1 and 2 are occupied by Stars Ltd, whilst property 3 is let out to a non -related party at a market rent. The management presents all three properties in balance sheet as’ ‘Property, plant and equipment’.

The company does not depreciate any of the properties on the basis that the fair values are exceeding their carrying amount and recognise the difference between purchase price and fair value in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Evaluate whether the accounting policies adopted by the Stars Ltd. in relation to these properties is in accordance of relevant Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS). If not, advise the correct treatment along  with workings.

Solution –

i. For classification of assets

As per Ind AS 16 ‘Property, Plant and Equipment’ states that Property, plant and equipment are tangible items that are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes.

As per Ind AS 40 ‘Investment property’, investment property is a property held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both, rather than for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes; or sale in the ordinary course of business.

According, to the facts given in the questions, since Proper ty 1 and 2 are used as factory buildings, their classification as PPE is correct. However, Property 3 is held to earn rentals; hence, it should be classified as Investment Property. Thus, its classification as PPE is not correct. Property 3 shall be presented as separate line item as Investment Property as per Ind AS 1.

ii. For valuation of assets

Ind AS 16 states that an entity shall choose either the cost model or the revaluation model as its accounting policy and shall apply that policy to an entire class of property, plant and equipment. Also, Ind AS 16 states that If an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued,  the  entire class of property, plant and equipment to which that asset belongs shall be revalued.

However, for investment property, Ind AS 40 states that an entity shall adopt as its accounting policy the cost model to all of its investment property. Ind AS 40 also requires that an entity shall disclose the fair value of investment property.

Since property 1 and 2 is used as factory building, they should be classified under same category or class ie. ‘factory building’. Therefore, both the properties should be valued either at cost model or revaluation model. Hence, the valuation model adopted by Stars Ltd. is not consistent and correct as per Ind AS 16.

In respect to property 3 being classified as Investment Property, there is no alternative of revaluation model i.e. only cost model is permitted for subsequent measurement. However, Stars Ltd. is required to disclose the fair value of the investment property in the Notes to Accounts.

iii. For changes in value on account of revaluation and treatment thereof

Ind AS 16 states that if an asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase shall be recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity under the heading ‘revaluation surplus’. However, the  increase shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognised in profit or loss. Accordingly, the revaluation gain shall be recognised in other comprehensive  income and accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus.

iv. For treatment of depreciation

Ind AS 16 states that depreciation is recognised even if the fair value of the asset exceeds its carrying amount, as long as the asset’s residual value does not exceed its carrying amount. Accordingly, Stars Ltd. is required to depreciate these properties irrespective of that their fair value exceeds the carrying amount.

v. Rectified presentation in the balance sheet

As per the provisions of Ind AS 1, Ind AS 16 and Ind AS 40, the presentation of these three properties in the balance sheet should be as follows:

Case 1: If Stars Ltd. has applied the Cost Model to an entire class of property, plant and equipment.

Balance Sheet extracts as at 31st March 2017







Non-Current Assets
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property 1 (30,000-3,000)                  27,000
Property 2 (20,000 – 2,000)               18,000
Investment Property  


Property 3 (Fair value being Rs. 27,000) (Cost = 24,000-2,400)

Case 2: If Stars Ltd. has applied the Revaluation Model to an entire class of property, plant and equipment.

Balance Sheet extracts as  at 31st  March 2017

Non-current Assets
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property 1 32,000
Property 2 22,000 54,000
Investment Properties
Property 3 (Fair value being 27,000) (Cost = 24,000-2,400) 21,600
Equity and Liabilities
Other Equity
Revaluation Reserve *
Property 1 (32,000 – 27,000) 5,000
Property 2 (22,000 –18,000) 4,000 9,000

* Revaluation reserve should be routed through Other  Comprehensive  Income (OCI) (subsequently not reclassified to Profit and Loss) in the Statement of Profit and Loss and shown as a separate column in the Statement of Changes in Equity.

Question 4 –

On 1st October, 2017, A Ltd. completed the construction of a power generating facility. The total construction cost was Rs. 2,00,00,000.  The facility was capable of being used from 1st October, 2017 but A Ltd. did not bring the facility into use until 1st January, 2018. The estimated useful life of the facility at 1st October, 2017 was 40 years. Legally there are no requirements to restore the land on which power generating facilities stand to its original state at the end of the useful life of the facility. However, A Ltd. has a reputation for conducting its business in an environmentally friendly way and has previously chosen to restore similar land even  in  the  absence  of  such  legal  requirements.  The directors of A Ltd. estimated that the cost of restoring the land in 40 years’ time (based on prices prevailing at that time) would be Rs. 1,00,00,000. A relevant annual discount rate to use in  any discounting calculations is 5%. When the annual discount rate  is  5%,  the present  value of Rs. 1 receivable in 40 years’ time is approximately 0.142.

Analyse and present  how the above events would be reported in the financial statements    of A Ltd. for the year ended 31st March, 2018 as per Ind AS.

Solution –

All figures are Rs. in ’000.

The power generating facility should be depreciated from the date it is ready for use, rather than when it would actually start being used. In this case, then, the facility should be depreciated from 1st October, 2017.

Although A Ltd. has no legal obligation to restore the piece of land, it does have a constructive obligation, based on its past practice and policies.

The amount of the obligation will be 1,420, being the present value of the anticipated future restoration expenditure (10,000 x 0.142).

This will be recognised as a provision under non-current liabilities in the Balance  Sheet  of A Ltd. at 31st March, 2018.

As time passes the discounted amount unwinds. The unwinding of the discount for the year ended 31st March, 2018 will be 35.5 (1,420 x 5% x 6/12).

The unwinding of the discount will be shown as a finance cost in the statement of profit or loss and the closing provision will be 1,455.50 (1,420 + 35.5).

The initial amount of the provision is included in the carrying amount of the non -current asset, which becomes 21,420 (20,000 + 1,420).

The depreciation charge in profit or loss for the year ended 31st March, 2018 is 267.75 (21,420 x 1/40 x 6/12).

The closing balance included in non-current assets will be 21,152.25 (21,420 – 267.75).

Question 5 –

An entity has a nuclear power plant and a related decommissioning liability. The nuclear  power plant started operating on 1st April, 20X1. The plant has a useful life of 40 years. Its initial cost was Rs. 1,20,000. This included an amount for decommissioning costs of Rs. 10,000, which represented Rs. 70,400 in estimated cash flows payable in 40 years discounted at a risk- adjusted rate of 5 per cent. The entity’s financial year ends on 31st March. Assume that a market-based discounted cash flow valuation of Rs. 1,15,000 is obtained at 31st March, 20X4. This valuation is after deduction of an allowance of Rs. 11,600 for decommissioning costs, which represents no change to the original estimate, after the unwinding of three years’ discount. On 31st March, 20X5, the entity estimates that, as a result of technological  advances, the present value of the decommissioning liability has decreased by Rs. 5,000. The entity decides that a full valuation of the asset is needed at 31st March, 20X5, in order to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from fair value. The asset is now valued at Rs. 1,07,000, which is net of an allowance for the reduced decommissioning obligation.

How the entity will account for the above changes in decommissioning liability if it adopts revaluation model?

Solution –

At 31st March, 20X4: Rs.
Asset at valuation (1) 1,26,600
Accumulated depreciation Nil
Decommissioning liability  (11,600)
Net assets  1,15,000
Retained earnings (2) (10,600)
Revaluation surplus (3) 5,600


(1) When accounting for revalued assets to which decommissioning liabilities attach, it is important to understand the basis of the valuation obtained. For example:

(a) if an asset is valued on a discounted cash flow basis, some valuers may value the asset without deducting any allowance for decommissioning costs (a ‘gross’ valuation), whereas others may value the asset after deducting an allowance for decommissioning costs (a ‘net’ valuation), because an entity acquiring the asset will generally also assume the decommissioning obligation. For financial reporting purposes, the decommissioning obligation is recognised as a separate liability, and is not deducted from the asset. Accordingly, if the asset is valued on a net basis, it is necessary to adjust the valuation obtained by adding back the allowance for the liability, so that the liability is not counted twice.

(b) if an asset is valued on a depreciated replacement cost basis, the valuation obtained may not include an amount for the decommissioning component of the asset. If it does not, an appropriate amount will need to be added to the valuation to reflect the depreciated replacement cost of that component.

Since, the asset is valued on a net basis, it is necessary to adjust the valuation obtained by adding back the allowance for the liability.  Valuation obtained of Rs. 1,15,000 plus decommissioning costs of Rs. 11,600, allowed for in the valuation but recognised as a separate liability = Rs. 1,26,600.

(2) Three years’ depreciation on original cost Rs. 1,20,000 × 3/40 = Rs. 9,000 plus cumulative discount on Rs. 10,000 at 5 per cent compound = Rs. 1,600; total Rs. 10,600.

(3) Revalued amount Rs. 1,26,600 less previous net book value of Rs. 1,11,000 (cost Rs. 120,000 less accumulated depreciation Rs. 9,000).

The depreciation expense for 20X4-20X5 is therefore Rs. 3,420 (Rs. 1,26,600 x 1 / 37) and the discount expense for 20X5 is Rs. 600.  On 31st March, 20X5, the decommissioning liability (before any adjustment) is Rs. 12,200.  However, as per estimate of the entity, the present value of the decommissioning liability has decreased by Rs. 5,000.  Accordingly, the entity adjusts the decommissioning liability from Rs. 12,200 to Rs. 7,200.

The whole of this adjustment is taken to revaluation surplus, because it does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been recognised had the asset been carried under the cost model. If it had done, the excess would have been taken to profit or loss. The entity makes the following journal entry to reflect the change:

Provision for decommissioning liability Dr 5000
To Revaluation surplus 5000

As at 31st March, 20X5, the entity revalued its asset at Rs. 1,07,000, which is net of an allowance of Rs. 7,200 for the reduced decommissioning obligation that should be recognised as a separate liability.  The valuation of the asset for financial reporting purposes, before deducting this allowance, is therefore Rs. 1,14,200.  The following additional journal entry is needed:


Rs. Rs.
Accumulated depreciation (1) Dr. 3,420  


To Asset at valuation

Revaluation surplus (2) Dr. 8,980  


To Asset at valuation (3)

(1) Eliminating accumulated depreciation of Rs. 3,420 in accordance with the entity’s accounting policy.

(2) The debit is to revaluation surplus because the deficit arising on the revaluation does not exceed the credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of the asset.

(3) Previous valuation (before allowance for decommissioning costs) Rs. 1,26,600, less cumulative depreciation Rs. 3,420, less new valuation (before allowance for decommissioning costs) Rs. 1,14,200.

Following this valuation, the amounts included in the balance sheet are:

Asset at valuation 1,14,200
Accumulated depreciation Nil
Decommissioning liability   (7,200)
Net assets 1,07,000
Retained earnings (1) (14,620)
Revaluation surplus (2) 11,620


(1) 10,600 at 31st March, 20X4, plus depreciation expense of Rs. 3,420 and discount expense of Rs. 600 = Rs. 14,620.

(2) 15,600 at 31st March, 20X4, plus Rs. 5,000 arising on the decrease in the liability, less Rs. 8,980 deficit on revaluation = Rs. 11,620.

Question 6 –

ABC Ltd is setting up a new refinery outside the city limits. In order to facilitate the construction of the refinery and its operations, ABC Ltd. is required to incur expenditure on the construction/development of railway siding, road and bridge. Though ABC Ltd. incurs (or contributes to) the expenditure on the construction/development, it will not have ownership rights on these items and they are also available for use to other entities and public at large. Whether ABC Ltd. can capitalise expenditure incurred on these items as property, plant and equipment (PPE)? If yes, how should these items be depreciated and presented in the financial statements of ABC Ltd. as per Ind AS?

Solution –

Ind AS 16 states that the cost of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be recognised as an asset if, and only if:

(a) it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; and

(b) the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

In the given case, railway siding, road and bridge are required to facilitate the construction of the refinery and for its operations. Expenditure on these items is required to be incurred in order to get future economic benefits from the project as a whole which can be considered as the unit of measure for the purpose of capitalisation of the said expenditure even though the company cannot restrict the access of others for using the assets individually. It is apparent that the aforesaid expenditure is directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.

In view of this, even though ABC Ltd. may not be able to recognize expenditure incurred on these assets as an individual item of property, plant and equipment in many cases (where it cannot restrict others from using the asset), expenditure incurred may be capitalised as a part of overall cost of the project. From this, it can be concluded that, in the extant case the expenditure incurred on these assets, i.e., railway siding, road and bridge, should be considered as the cost of constructing the refinery and accordingly, expenditure incurred on these items should be allocated and capitalised as part of the items of property, plant and equipment of the refinery.

Question 7 –

On 1st April, 2017 Good Time Limited purchased some land for Rs. 1.5 crore (including legal cost of Rs. 10 lakhs) for the purpose of constructing a new factory. Construction work commenced on 1st May, 2017. Good Time Limited incurred the  following  costs  in relation to its construction.

Preparation and levelling of the land 4,40,000
Purchase of materials for the construction 92,00,000
Employment costs of the construction workers (per month) 1,45,000
Overhead costs incurred directly on the construction of the factory (per month) 1,25,000
Ongoing overhead costs allocated to the construction project (using the company’s normal overhead allocation model) per month 75,000
Costs of relocating employees to work at new factory 3,25,000
Costs of the opening ceremony on 1st January, 2018 2,50,000
Income received during the temporary use of the factory  premises as a  store during the construction period. 60,000

The construction of the factory was completed on 31st December,  2017  and  production began on 1st February, 2018.  The  overall  useful life  of the  factory  building was  estimated at 40 years from the date of completion. However,  it is estimated  that the  roof will  need to be replaced 20 years after the date of completion and that the cost of replacing the roof at current prices would be 25% of the total cost of the building.

At the end of the 40 years period, Good Time Limited has a legally enforceable obligation to demolish the factory and restore the site to its original condition. The company estimates that the  cost  of  demolition in 40 year’s  time  (based  on  price  prevailing  at  that  time)  will be Rs. 3 crore. The annual risk adjusted discount rate which is appropriate to this project is 8%. The present value of Rs. 1 payable in 40 years time at an annual discount rate  of 8% is 0.046.

The construction of the factory was  partly  financed. by a loan of Rs. 1.4 crore taken  out on 1st April, 2017. The loan  was  at  an  annual  rate  of  interest  of  9%.  During  the  period 1st April, 2017 to 30th September, 2017 (when the loan proceeds had been fully utilized to finance the construction), Good Time  Limited  received  investment  income  of  Rs. 1,25,000 on the temporary investment of the proceeds.

You are required to compute  the cost  of the factory  and the carrying amount of the factory  in the Balance Sheet of Good Time Limited as at 31st  March, 2018.


Computation of the cost of the factory


Purchase of land 1,50,00,000
Preparation and levelling 4,40,000
Materials 92,00,000
Employment costs of construction workers (1,45,000 x 8 months) 11,60,000
Direct overhead costs (1,25,000 x 8 months) 10,00,000
Allocated overhead costs Nil
Income from use of a factory as a store Nil
Relocation costs Nil
Cost of the opening ceremony Nil
Finance costs 9,45,000
Investment income on temporary investment of the loan proceeds (1,25,000)
Demolition cost recognised as a provision (3,00,00,000 x 0.046)   13,80,000
Total 2,90,00,000

 Computation of carrying amount of the factory as at 31st  March, 2018


Land (Non- depreciable asset) Factory (Depreciable asset)
Cost of the Asset (Total cost 2,90,00,000) 1,50,00,000 1,40,00,000
Less: Depreciation
On Land Nil
On Factory
Depreciation on roof component (1,40,00,000 × 25% × 1/20 x 3/12)  


Depreciation on remaining factory (1,40,00,000 × 75% × 1/40 × 3/12)  






Carrying amount of depreciable asset i.e. factory  




Total cost



  1. Interest cost has been capitalised based on nine month period. This is because, purchase of land would trigger off capitalisation.
  2. All of the net finance cost of Rs. 8,20,000 (Rs. 9,45,000 – Rs. 1,25,000) has been allocated to the depreciable asset i.e Factory. Alternatively, it can be allocated proportionately between land and factory.

Question 8 –

Company X performed a revaluation of all of its plant and machinery at the beginning of 2018-2019. The following information relates to one of the machinery:

Amount (‘000)
Gross carrying amount Rs. 200
Accumulated depreciation (straight-line method)   Rs. 80
Net carrying amount Rs. 120
Fair value Rs. 150

The useful life of the machinery is 10 years and the company uses Straight line method of depreciation. The revaluation was performed at the end of the 4th year.

How should the Company account for revaluation of plant and machinery and depreciation subsequent to revaluation?

Solution –

According to paragraph 35 of Ind AS 16, when an  item of property, plant and  equipment is revalued, the carrying amount of that asset is adjusted to the revalued amount. At the date of the revaluation, the asset is treated in one of the following ways:

(a) The gross carrying amount is adjusted in a manner that is consistent with the revaluation of the carrying amount of the asset. For example, the gross carrying amount may be restated by reference to observable market data or it may be restated proportionately to the change in the carrying amount. The accumulated depreciation at the date of the revaluation is adjusted to equal the difference  between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount of the asset after taking into account accumulated impairment losses; or

(b) The accumulated depreciation is eliminated against the gross carrying  amount of the asset.

The amount of the adjustment of accumulated depreciation forms part of the  increase or decrease in carrying amount that is accounted for in  accordance with  the paragraphs 39 and 40 of Ind AS 16.

If the Company opts for the treatment as per option (a), then the revised carrying amount of the machinery will be:

Gross carrying amount Rs. 250 [(200/120) x 150]
Net carrying amount Rs.150
Accumulated depreciation Rs. 100 (Rs. 250 – Rs. 150)

Journal entry

Plant and Machinery A/c (Gross Block) Dr. Rs. 50

To Accumulated Depreciation

Rs. 20

To Revaluation Reserve

Rs. 30

If the balance of accumulated depreciation is eliminated as per option (b), then  the revised carrying amount of the machinery will be as follows:

Gross carrying amount is restated to Rs.150 to reflect the fair value and Accumulated depreciation is set at zero.

Journal entry

Accumulated Depreciation Dr. Rs. 80

To Plant and Machinery A/c (Gross Block)

Rs. 80
Plant and Machinery A/c (Gross Block) Dr. Rs. 30

To Revaluation Reserve

Rs. 30


Option (a) –  Since the Gross Block has been restated, the depreciation charge will be Rs. 25 per annum (Rs. 250 / 10 years).

Option (b) – Since the Revalued amount is the revised Gross  Block, the useful life  to  be considered is the remaining useful life of the asset which results in the same depreciation charge of   Rs.  25 per annum as  per Option A (Rs. 150 / 6 years).


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